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Crops

Mango

KALI Academy
At a glance

Good nutrition leads to high quality fruits

Mango fruit is produced by a tropical tree, Mangifera indica, explaining its place of origin. The tree develops a deep root system, which means that the plant occurs in a wide range of rainfall intensities, from humid to semi-arid to dry tropical climates. Fertilization is a key factor in producing good quality fruit.

  • Mango trees need higher doses of nitrogen when they are young. After beginning to yield fruit, however, they need less.
  • As they begin to fruit, they need less nitrogen and more P and K.
  • At this time, nutrient ratios of 1.0-1.6-2 N-P-K should be considered ideal for fruit-bearing trees.
  • Potassium should be applied as potassium sulfate (SOP).
  • For good quality and preservation, the N : Ca ratio should be less than 0.5 and the K : Ca ratio less than 0.2.
Importance and benefit

Mango – a tasty and nutritious fruit

Among tropical fruits, the mango is second only to the banana in global production, although it is often considered inferior in world trade because of its sensitivity to pressure. Today, India is the world's largest producer of mangos, followed by China and Thailand.

Mango is a very tasty and nutritious fruit containing large amounts of vitamin C. Mango is a very versatile fruit, suitable for processing at all stages of ripeness. The unripe fruit can be made into chutneys, pickles, and relishes, while the ripe fruit can be prepared as slices in syrup or brine, juice, puree, jam, jelly, and ice cream, for example. Mango seeds are ground into flour and the wood of the mango tree is used, for example, for boats, flooring, and furniture.

Nutrients

The most important nutrients for mango

As with most fruit trees, the need for nutrients varies with the stage of their development. During vegetative growth, nitrogen is usually needed in higher amounts, while in fruiting and fruit growth, the importance shifts to a lower supply of N and more P, K, Ca, and Mg for better fruiting. Quality is also affected by nutrient form, especially in drier environments where chloride can accumulate. SOP-based fertilizers should therefore be preferred.

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Potassium – for high yield and quality

  • The influence of K on fruit quality is greater than any other plant nutrient.
  • Potassium is required for many physiological processes in the plant, e.g. photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, protein, and carbohydrate synthesis, translocation of assimilates and enzyme activation.
  • K has a significant influence on growth and development of mango trees, especially with regard to the early vegetative phase when young mango trees require potassium for rapid girth development and branching.
  • During the mature phase, potassium is an essential nutrient for fruit filling (size & weight) and quality.
  • Potassium ensures more even ripening and helps to achieve a desirable skin color.
  • The optimum leaf concentration of K ranges between 0.3-0.8 % of dry matter.
  • The K : Ca ratio should not be < 0.2 in order to produce fruits of good quality and free from internal tissue breakdown ('soft nose' disorder).
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Magnesium – for sweet and tasty fruits

  • Compared to other major fruit crops, mango is a very magnesium-intensive crop.
  • Magnesium is a component of chlorophyll and plays an important role in photosynthesis.
  • Magnesium is important for the quality of mango, as the edible part of the mango fruit contains about 15 % sugar. Adequate magnesium supply ensures sufficient sugar production and transfer to the developing fruit.
  • Magnesium affects yield potential because the tree requires magnesium for optimal root growth, especially during the non-bearing phase. Underdeveloped root systems are more susceptible to nutrient deficiencies and water stress.
  • The optimal foliar concentration for Mg should be in the range of 0.15-0.4 % of dry matter.
Fertilizer recommendation

Fertilizer recommendations

Targeted fertilization is recommended to provide sufficient nutrients for achieving the required biomass, especially in the juvenile stage, and to replace the nutrients withdrawn by the crop and those lost by harvesting. A soil analysis at the beginning of planting and for control every 3-5 years, as well as an annual foliar analysis to check the nutritional status of the tree are recommended. The potassium and magnesium amounts indicated in the table below can be used as a guideline. It is recommended to apply half of the dose after harvest (when rainfall and soil moisture are sufficient) and the rest at the beginning of the main growing season. In general, yield and quality of mango, like many other fruit trees, are negatively affected by chloride. Therefore, low chloride, SOP-based fertilizers are recommended.

Recommendation for soil fertilization

*Patentkali is recommended when available

Age 1 : 200 K (g tree-1) 400 Sop (g tree-1) 20 Mg (g tree-1)

  • 130 (g tree-1) ESTA Kieserit
  • 650 (g tree-1) Patentkali 

Age 2-3: 200 K (g tree-1) 400 Sop (g tree-1) 30 Mg (g tree-1)

  • 180 (g tree-1) ESTA Kieserit
  • 650 (g tree-1) Patentkali 

Age 4-6: 250 K (g tree-1) 500 Sop (g tree-1) 35 Mg (g tree-1)

  • 220 (g tree-1) ESTA Kieserit
  • 830 (g tree-1) Patentkali 

Age 7-8: 375 K (g tree-1) 750 Sop (g tree-1) 55 Mg (g tree-1)

  • 340 (g tree-1) ESTA Kieserit
  • 1250 (g tree-1) Patentkali 

Age 9-10: 500 K (g tree-1) 1000 Sop (g tree-1) 75 Mg (g tree-1)

Age  > 10: 650 K (g tree-1) 1300 Sop (g tree-1) 100 Mg (g tree-1)

  • 460 (g tree-1) ESTA Kieserit
  • 1700 (g tree-1) Patentkali 
  • 580 (g tree-1) ESTA Kieserit
  • 2200 (g tree-1) Patentkali 

Recommendation for foliar fertilization

Product Recommendations

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